Part I  Part II  Part III  Part IV  Part V  Part VI  Part VII

Source: http://www.um.dk/danida/evalueringsrapporter/1997_rwanda/book1.asp#c5 
Accessed 06 November 2001

Study 1

Historical Perspective: Some Explanatory Factors

by

Tor Sellström
Lennart Wohlgemuth


The Nordic Africa InstituteUppsala, Sweden

with contributions by

Patrick Dupont
Karin Andersson Schiebe

Joint Evaluation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda

Part VII

 Part I  Part II  Part III  Part IV  Part V  Part VI  Part VII

Appendix 2

Chronology

Based mainly on Dorsey 1994, Reyntjens 1994:1 and McHugh 1995.

1860: The new mwami, Kigeri Rwabugiri (1860-1895), expands his power in the central kingdom and in the western region. He also expands the system of clientship.
1880s: The first European explorers arrive in Rwanda.
1895: New mwami: Mibambwe Rutarindwa.
1896: Mwami Rutarindwa is assassinated and succeeded by Yuhi Musinga.
1899: Germany establishes colonial rule in Ruanda-Urundi and the territory becomes part of German East Africa. The first missionaries arrive.
1910: The frontiers of the Belgian Congo, British Uganda and German East Africa - including the territory of Ruanda-Urundi - are fixed at a conference in Brussels.
1911: A popular uprising in northern Rwanda is crushed by the German Schutztruppe and Tutsi chiefs, leaving continuing bitterness among northern Hutu.
1916: Belgium takes over the territory, which after the First World War is administered under a League of Nations mandate.
1931: Mwami Musinga is deposed by the Belgians in favour of his son, Charles Rudahigwa Mutara.
1930s: A process of "Tutsification" results in a monopoly of political and administrative power in the hands of Tutsi. Ethnic classification through the introduction of identity cards.
1957: The Bahutu Manifesto, a document criticizing the Tutsi monopoly, is issued by nine Hutu intellectuals.
1959: The jacqu‚rie takes place - a social revolution by the Hutu population supported by Belgium. Tens of thousands of Tutsi flee into exile. The same year, mwami Mutara Rudahigwa dies mysteriously in Bujumbura. He is succeeded by his brother, Kigeri Ndahindurwa.
1960: Rwanda's first local elections result in an overwhelming victory for the Parmehutu party. Mwami Kigeri Ndahindurwa chooses not to return from the independence celebrations in the Congo.
1961: The monarchy is formally abolished by a referendum. On 25 September, the first parliamentary elections in Rwanda are held. Parmehutu receives 78% of the vote.
1962: On 1 July, Rwanda and Burundi gain independence from Belgium. The first President of independent Rwanda is Gr‚goire Kayibanda from the Parmehutu party.
1963: Armed attacks by Tutsi exiles from Burundi, the so-called inyenzi, deepen ethnic tension in Rwanda. In the violence, which escalates in November-December, some 1,000 Tutsi are killed and there is a new wave of Tutsi refugees to Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and Zaire.
1973: Coup d'‚tat; Major-General Juv‚nal Habyarimana assumes power. He founds a new party, the National Revolutionary Movement for Development (Mouvement R‚volutionnaire National pour le D‚veloppement, MRND). Beginning of the Second Republic.
1978: MRND becomes Rwanda's only party under a new constitution. Habyarimana is confirmed as President in 1978, 1983 and 1988, with more than 99% of the vote.
1987: A military coup takes place in Burundi. President Bagaza is overthrown and Major Pierre Buyoya takes power.
1988: In April, ethnic tensions in Burundi cause a wave of refugees into Rwanda. In connection with a conference on Rwandese refugees, held in Washington D.C., the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) is founded.
1990
July: A first breakthrough in negotiations between Rwanda, Uganda and UNHCR on the repatriation of Rwandese refugees in Uganda is achieved.
5 July: President Habyarimana recognizes the necessity of a separation between the MRND party and the state.
1 September: A protest letter denouncing the one-party system is published by 33 intellectuals.
24 September: A National Commission is set up to prepare for the introduction of a multi-party system.
1 October: Uganda-based RPF invades the northern parts of Rwanda, demanding the right to settle thousands of (mainly Tutsi) refugees and political reforms, such as introduction of a multi-party system. In the war that follows, several RPF leaders are killed and the attack is repulsed.
Mid-October: Local Hutu take revenge on Tutsi in the commune of Kibilira (in Gisenyi). More than 300 people are killed.
24 October: A cease-fire concluded in Mwanza, Tanzania, a week earlier is violated.
27 October: The heads of state of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Zaire agree to form a military peace-monitoring force as a first step to end the civil war in Rwanda.
End of October: There is a stalemate in the war. RPF abandons conventional fighting and reverts to guerilla warfare.
October-November: Thousands of RPF "collaborators" are arrested. Most of them are released in March/April 1991.
13 November: President Habyarimana announces the introduction of multi-partyism and the abolition of the ethnic identity cards. The ID cards were, however, never abolished.
20 November: A cease-fire is concluded in Goma, Zaire. An agreement on an OAU observer force is signed.
1991
January-February: Trials of arrested RPF "collaborators" start. Several prisoners are sentenced to death, but no executions are carried out.
23 January: RPF raid in Ruhengeri. Prisoners are liberated, some of whom join the RPF.
29 March: A cease-fire between RPF and the Rwandese government is reached. An agreement on the integration of RPF in a transitional government is signed.
28 April: MRND holds an extraordinary congress, where multi-partyism is accepted and the name and status of the party are changed. New name: Mouvement R‚publicain pour le D‚veloppement et la D‚mocratie (still abbreviated MRND).
10 June: A new constitution is introduced.
18 June: A law on multi-partyism is promulgated.
31 July: The domestic opposition denounces plans to hold elections, insisting that ample time must be allowed for preparations.
16 September: OAU summit in Gbadolite, Zaire. The earlier cease-fire agreement is amended.
Early November: Widespread ethnic violence.
17 November: A Committee of Consultation organizes political demonstrations in Kigali against the government and the one-party system. Some 10,000 people participate.
Early December: The Rwandese Catholic church takes a political stance, calling for serious talks with RPF and formation of an independent transitional government.
30 December: Formation of the Nsanzimana government with one minister from Partie D‚mocrate Chr‚tien (PDC) and the rest from MRND.
1992
8 January: Demonstrations in Kigali against the government and the one-party system with some 30,000 participants.
Beginning of March: Ethnic violence in Bugesera. At least 300 killed.
13 March: New negotiations between the government and main opposition parties.
March: CDR (Coalition pour la D‚fence de la R‚publique) and MRND militias are built up by extremist Hutu supporters.
16 April: Inclusion of all major opposition parties in the government (MDR, PSD, PL, PDC). Prime Minister: Nsengiyaremye.
May: A major RPF attack on Byumba results in a wave of Hutu peasants from the north moving southward (some 350,000 people).
2 June: Government army forces begin looting in several towns in anticipation of losing their jobs if the government signs a peace pact with RPF.
9 June: After talks in Brussels and Paris between RPF and all government parties except MRND, an agreement to hold a peace conference to end the two years of civil war is reached.
10 August: Formal opening of the peace conference in Arusha, Tanzania.
10-18 August: Negotiations on the Arusha protocol on the rule of law.
7-18 September and 5-30 October: The second Arusha protocol on transitional institutions is discussed.
November: Political violence by extremist Hutu interahamwe militia escalates.
End of November: A demonstration, in favour of the peace-talks and against Habyarimana's veto to the protocol on transitional institutions, takes place despite the government's attempts to stop it.
24 November-9 January 1993: A protocol on power-sharing and a transitional parliament is discussed in Arusha, but President Habyarimana refuses to sign it.
1993
21-26 January: Ethnic violence in the north-west. Some 300 people are killed.
8 February: RPF occupation of an important zone in the pr‚fectures of Ruhengeri and Byumba. As a consequence, almost 1 million people are displaced. The French reinforce their troops in Rwanda by 300 men.
25 February-2 March: Peace negotiations between RPF and the opposition parties within the government on the withdrawal of all French troups and their replacement by UN or OAU troops.
7 March: A new cease-fire agreement is signed in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
Mid-March: The 300 extra French troops are withdrawn.
15 March: Peace talks are taken up again in Arusha (and continue until 24 June).
April: The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) warns that the 900,000 displaced people in Rwanda face a major humanitarian catastrophe. ICRC says that famine is imminent.
1 June: Presidential elections in Burundi. New President: Melchior Ndadaye (Hutu).
9 June: Agreement concerning refugees and internally displaced people. An estimated 500,000 displaced people are reported to return home.
24 June: Arusha protocol on inclusion of RPF in the army and the gendarmerie, and specifications on the transitional institutions.
8 July: The Hutu extremist Radio T‚l‚vision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM) starts broadcasting.
16 July: The Prime Minister's transitional mandate expires.
17 July: A new government is formed with Agathe Uwilingiyimana as Prime Minister. This results in a division within MDR.
23-24 July: Extraordinary congress of MDR. Its president, Faustin Twagiramungu, is excluded from the party.
25 July: A more detailed agreement (on military matters) is signed in Kinihira. It is also agreed that Twagiramungu will be Prime Minister when the new transitional government is established.
4 August: Rwanda's government and RPF sign an accord in Arusha to end the civil war, allowing for power-sharing and the return of refugees.
5 October: The UN Security Council approves a 2,500-strong peacekeeping force to Rwanda, the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR).
17-18 October: 37 MRND supporters are killed in the Ruhengeri area.
21 October: A military coup takes place in Burundi, in which Hutu President Ndadaye is killed. The ethnic violence that follows results in tens of thousands of dead and some 600,000 Burundis fleeing into neighbouring countries. Escalated political and ethnic violence in Rwanda.
1 November: The UN starts placing UNAMIR forces in Rwanda.
30 November: At least 20 people are killed when RPF forces break the cease-fire and attack government troops in north-western Rwanda.
28 December: 600 RPF soldiers arrive in Kigali in accordance with the Arusha agreement.
1994
30 December 1993-5 April 1994: Transitional government fails to take off, with each side blaming the other for blocking its formation.
6 April: President Habyarimana of Rwanda, President Ntaryamira of Burundi and a number of government officials are killed in a plane crash in Kigali. President Habyarimana's death sparks violence and widespread massacres in Kigali, which spread throughout the country. The violence soon escalates, mainly targeting Hutu moderates and the Tutsi population.
7 April: Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana is killed by government forces. Ten Belgian UN peacekeeping soldiers, who were guarding her, are disarmed by the Presidential Guard and killed. As a result, Belgium withdraws its forces. The 600 RPF soldiers in Kigali leave their headquarters.
8 April: RPF forces in northern Rwanda launch an offensive. Former Speaker of parliament Theodore Sindikubwabo announces the formation of an interim government and declares himself interim President. Prime Minister: Jean Kambanda (MDR).
11 April: Relief officials estimate that as many as 20,000 people have been killed in Kigali alone in five days of violence. With foreign journalists out of Rwanda, news from the country is restricted.
12 April: The interim government moves from Kigali to Gitarama as RPF threatens the capital.
21 April: The UN Security Council resolution No. 912 reduces the UNAMIR peacekeeping force in Rwanda from 2,500 to 270 men with an unchanged mandate.
End of April: An estimated 250,000 people stream across the Rwandese border to seek refuge in Tanzania, reportedly the largest mass exodus of people ever witnessed by UNHCR.
30 April: UN Security Council affirms the need to protect refugees and help restore order, but does not mention peacekeepers. At least 100,000 people have been killed and more than 1.3 million have fled their homes.
17 May: The UN Security Council passes a new resolution (No. 918), approving the deployment of 5,500 UNAMIR troops to Rwanda.
22 May: RPF forces gain control of the airport in Kigali and the Kanombe barracks, and extend their control over the northern and eastern parts of Rwanda.
17 June: France announces its plan to the UN Security Council to deploy 2,500 troops to Rwanda as an interim peacekeeping force until the UNAMIR troops arrive.
22 June: The UN Security Council narrowly approves a resolution (No.929) to dispatch 2,500 French troops to Rwanda (Op‚ration Turquoise) for a two-month operation under a UN peace-keeping mandate.
28 June: The UN Human Rights Commission's special envoy releases a report stating that the massacres were pre-planned and formed part of a systematic campaign of genocide.
4 July: RPF wins control of Kigali and the southern town of Butare. Its leadership states that it intends to establish a government based on the framework of the Arusha accords. French troops in south-western Rwanda receive orders to halt the RPF advance.
5 July: The French-led operation has established a "safe zone" defined roughly by the pr‚fectures of Gikongoro, Cyangugu, and Kibuye. As RPF advances towards the west, the influx of displaced persons into the zone increases from an initial 500,000 to an estimated 1 million within a few days.
13-14 July: As a result of RPF's advance in the north-west, an estimated 1 million people begin to flee towards Zaire. Approximately 10,000-12,000 refugees per hour cross the border and enter the town of Goma. The massive influx creates a severe humanitarian crisis, as there is an acute lack of shelter, food, water, and non-food relief items.
15 July: Members of the Hutu government escape to the French "safe zone". UN Security Council orders cease-fire.
18 July: RPF announces that the war is over, declares a cease-fire and names Pastor Bizimungu as President with Faustin Twagiramungu as Prime Minister.
19 July: The new President and Prime Minister are sworn in, and RPF commander Major-General Paul Kagame is appointed Defence Minister and Vice-President.
End of July: The UN Security Council reaches a final agreement on sending an international force to Rwanda.
24 August: End of Op‚ration Turquoise. UNAMIR forces take over from the French.
October: The UN estimates that there are now about 5 million people in Rwanda, compared to 7.9 million before the war.
8 November: UN Security Council adopts a resolution (No. 955) on the establishment of an international court for war criminals of Rwanda.
24 December: An exile government is announced among Hutu refugees in Zaire.1995
22 April: Soldiers of the RPF army carry out a massacre at the Kibeho camp for internally displaced persons in Rwanda.
April: Refugees are forced to return to their home districts from the camps for internally displaced persons.
23-26 August: Zaire expels refugees from the Goma camps and threatens to expel all refugees. UNHCR takes up a discussion with Zaire.
28 August: Prime Minister Faustin Twagiramungu resigns.
31 August: New Prime Minister, Pierre-C‚l‚stin Rwigyema, and ministers approved in a cabinet reshuffle.
7 September: The UN Security Council adopts a resolution on the establishment of an international commission of inquiry on the sale and supply of arms and related material to the former Rwanda government forces in violation of the UN embargo implemented on 17 May 1994 (Resolution 1013 1995).
13 September: Zaire closes its border with Rwanda following bomb explosions in Goma.
17 October: A Supreme Court is established by an act of parliament.
2-6 November: An international conference on genocide, impunity and accountability is held in Kigali.
7 November: Clash between the army and Hutu rebels on Lake Kivu Island. Many people are reported killed.
23 November: The prosecutor of the International Court for War Criminals of Rwanda, Judge Goldstone, signs his first indictment.
28-29 November: A summit meeting of leaders of the Great Lakes Region takes place in Cairo, Egypt.
14 December: The UN Security Council extends UNAMIR's mandate in Rwanda for an additional three months to 8 March 1996 (Resolution 1019). The Force will be reduced from 2,100 men to 1,400 and concentrate its activities on the return of refugees.

Appendix 3

Annotated Bibliography

Bibliography

In any study of the pre-colonial period, in particular with a focus on ethnicity and patron-client -relationships, two schools of thought can be identified. One looks at the issues from a primordialistic point of view, while the other approaches them from a situational perspective.

A sample of the primordialistic writers and cicerones would include Pagés (1933), de Lacger (1939), Maquet (1954) and Kagame (1943, 1947, 1952, 1954, 1957, 1972, 1975). To Vansina (1962), these authors produced "une déformation systématique", i.e. a systematic deformation, of Rwanda´s history. Common to them is their static description of society, where social changes occur after each other and not because of each other. They reflect the ideas and values of the then predominant intellectual currents related to ethnicity studies, viz. the creeds of climatic and genetic determinism. As d´Hertefelt (1971) noted in reference to these ethno-historical sources and related studies, they are based on interpretations of reinterpretations, as in Rennie (1972). The pre-colonial Kingdom of Rwanda: A reinterpretation.

The prevailing interpretation of Rwandese political organization resulted from attempts by social scientists to explain how integration into the society was possible despite the political domination of a minority ethnic group. They assumed that ethnic and class stratification between Tutsi and Hutu, as prevailing at that time, were eternal unchanging features of "traditional´ Rwanda. The work of Jacques J. Maquet has perhaps been the most influential in this regard. Many subsequent studies accepted the general lines of his view of pre-colonial Rwanda.

Writers who adhere to the situationalistic school are Vansina (1962), d´Hertefelt (1962, 1971), C. Newbury (1974, 1988, 1991), Vidal (1967, 1969, 1973, 1985) and Lema (1993). They give particular attention to regional differences in space and time. They also represent the "post-World War II" view of ethnicity as situational. To them, the Rwandese society was not, and is not, homogeneous, though an ideal picture with some characteristic traits of the whole country can be given. They claim that one should make a distinction between a vertical order concerned with "caste" differences in the centre and a horizontal order dealing with regional-cultural variations in the peripheries, particularly in the north- western regions. We have also drawn considerably on D. Newbury (1979, 1980:1 1980:2, 1987).

Colonial period/independence

Most historians describing the pre-colonial period continue their studies into the colonial period. We have found the two books by Filip Reyntjens extremely valuable: Pouvoir et Droit au Rwanda (1985) and L´Afrique des Grands Lacs en Crise: Rwanda, Burundi 1988 - 1994 (1994). The first describes the colonial period and the second the period after independence. For a slightly different view we refer to Chrétien´s articles "La crise politique rwandaise" (1992) and "Violence et ethnicité au Rwanda et au Burundi: Peurs et stratégies" (1994). In her book The Cohesion of Oppression. Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda, 1860 - 1960 (1988), C. Newbury gives a very good picture of the colonial period seen from south-west Rwanda.

1990 - 1994

Reyntjens (1994:1) provides a description and a multi-disciplinary analysis of the crisis that has been striking Rwanda (and Burundi), mainly since the end of the 1980s. Further useful insights into the crisis are provided by Chrétien (1992:2) and Prunier (1995). Other authors concentrate more on specific factors behind the conflict.

Bézy (1990) and Marysse & de Herdt (1993) describe the increasing (internal and external) economic vulnerability of the country. Along with C. Newbury (1991), these authors investigate the link between economic and political power positions. Maton (1994) tries to establish whether the violence was caused by the population´s increasing economic distress.

The issue of refugees, one of the immediate reasons for the October 1990 invasion by the RPF, is described in full details by Watson (1991) and Guichaoua (1992:1, 1992:2). Prunier (1992, 1993) provides further information on the RPF and its links with the Uganda government.

Not less than six consecutive reports from human rights watchers (1992 - 1994) describe the hostile climate in Rwanda after the RPF invasion, parallel to the peace-making negotiations in Arusha. The outcome of the negotiations can be found in several communiqués and protocoles.

April 1994 and after

A large number of books on the massacres seen from a journalistic angle have already been published, such as Braeackman (1994), Brauman (1994), Destexhe (1994) and Verschave (1994). More comprehensive books were recently published by Prunier (1995): The Rwandese Crisis (1959 - 1994) and by Guichaoua (1995): Les crises politiques au Burundi et au Rwanda (1993 - 1994). The most thorough account so far on the massacres and their aftermath is the report by African Rights from September 1994. Other documents are by Human Rights Watch/Africa (September 1994, December 1994 and April 1995) and Human Rights Watch/Arms Project (January 1994 and May 1995).

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Appendix 4

Interviews and Meetings

As an important complement to the written sources which formed the basis of this study, a number of interviews with established experts on Rwanda have been carried out during the process of work on Study I. These interviews included talks with:

- Prof. Jean-Pierre Chrétien (Centre de Recherche Africain, Paris).
- Dr. José Kagabo (Centre d´Etudes Africaines, Paris).
- Dr. Antoine Lema (University of Lund, Sweden).
- Dr. Ian Linden (Catholic Institute for International Relations, London).
- Prof. Stefaan Marysse (University of Antwerp).
- Prof. Catharine Newbury (University of North Carolina).
- Prof. David Newbury (University of North Carolina).
- Prof. Gérard Prunier (Centre de Recherche Africain, Paris).
- Prof. Filip Reyntjens (University of Antwerp).

In addition, discussions with other experts have taken place, and some of them also read and commented on the drafts:

- Joël Dine (Ministére de la Coopération, Paris).
- Dr. John R. Eriksson (former Director USAID-CDIE).
- Prof. André Guichaoua (University of Lille).

Several workshops and seminars with focus on Rwanda took place during the period of work on Study I. Members of the study team participated in the following seminars: "Preparatory Research seminar on the Rwanda conflict and Church and Society in Central Africa", organised in Uppsala on 6 - 8 April 1995 by the Swedish Institute of Missionary Research, Life & Peace Institute and the Christian Council of Sweden, and "Perspectives on the future for Rwanda", which was organized by the University of Westminster and took place in London on 12 May 1995. Both these occasions were valubale opportunities to talk with experts on Rwanda, and gave new ideas to the presentation.

Apart from visits to Antwerp (February 1995), Paris (March and November 1995) and London (12 May 1995), the head of the study team also made a brief visit to Rwanda in April 1995, where he met government officials and representatives of various UN and NGO aid agencies.

Appendix 5

List of Abbreviations

© Udenrigsministeriet
ADB African Development Bank
APROSOMA      Association pour la promotion sociale des masses
(Association for Social Promotion of the Masses). Political party in Rwanda
ARCT African Regional Centre for Technology
BDEGL Banque de Développement des Etats des Grands Lacs
(Development Bank of the Great Lakes States).
CDR Coalition pour la Défence de la République
(Coalition for the Defence of the Republic). Political party in Rwanda.
CEEAC Communauté Economique des Etats de l?Afrique Centrale
(Economic Community of the Central African States)
CEPGL Communauté Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs
(Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries).
COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
ECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
EGL Energy Organization of the Great Lakes Countries
FAR Forces Armées Rwandaises (RAF: Rwandese Armed Forces).
FRODEBU Front pour la Démocratie au Burundi
(Front for Democracy in Burundi). Political party in Burundi.
GOMN Groupement des Observateurs Militaires Neutres
(Group of Neutral Military Observers).
OAU/UN-sponsored monitoring group, set up in 1993.
IRAZ Institut de Recherche Agronomique et Zoologique
(Agronomic and Zoological Research Institute).
MDR Mouvement Démocratique Républicain
(Republican Democratic Movement). Political party in Rwanda.
MRND Mouvement Révolutionnaire National pour le Développment).
(National Revolutionary Movement for Development).
Political party in Rwanda.
NRA National Resistance Army (Uganda).
OAU Organization of African Unity
OBK Organisation pour l?amenagement et le développement du Bassin de la rivière
Kagera (Organization for planning and development of the Kagera river basin).
PADIS Pan-African Documentation and Information Service
Parmehutu Parti du mouvement de l?émancipation des Bahutu (Bahutu
Emancipation Movement Party). Political party in Rwanda.
PDC Parti Démocrate Chrétien (Christian Democratic Party).
Political party in Rwanda.
PL Parti Libéral (Liberal Party). Political party in Rwanda.
PSD Parti Social Démocrate (Social Democratic Party). Political party in Rwanda.
PTA Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa
RADER Rassemblement Démocratique Rwandais
(Rwandese Democratic Assembly). Political party in Rwanda.
RPA Rwandese Patriotic Army (Armée Patriotique Rwandaise, APR).
RPF Rwandese Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandaise, FPR).
RTLMC Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines
(Free Radio/Television of the Thousand Hills).
STRC Scientific, Technical and Research Commission
UNAR Union Nationale Rwandaise (National Rwandese Union).
Political party in Rwanda.
UNAMIR United Nations Aid Mission to Rwanda. UN military force.
UNREO United Nations Rwanda Emergency Office
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees
UPRONA Union pour le Progrès National (Union for National Progress).
Political party in Burundi.

Document compiled by Dr S D Stein
Last update 29/01/07 18:25:36
Stuart.Stein@uwe.ac.uk
©S D Stein

Faculty of Humanities, Languages and Social Science